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How We Practice: Backhand Lag

by in Analysis, Opinion with 9 Comments

Scandal taking on Hot Metal in the Mid-Atlantic Regional Women's Finals.

This is the second post in our series, ‘How We Practice.’

It’s been two months since a friend invited you to your first pickup game and you caught Ultimate fever. In the beginning, your forehand flopped like a quail. Now, 1000 throws later, it feels pretty solid. In fact, it has become your favorite throw. Weirdly, in the process, you seem to have lost the ability to throw a crisp backhand. Though that was the first throw you ever learned — tossing a Frisbee around on the beach — your backhand release is now awkward and inconsistent. The disc feels sticky when it leaves your hand and you’ve lost distance and confidence. What’s up with this?

Let’s call the phenomenon “backhand lag.” Anyone who has spent time teaching Ultimate will be familiar with it. It can be a mild effect or a significant one; it can last for a few months or longer than a year. Some players describe their backhand as worse not only relative to their improving forehand but relative to the backhand they began with – not just a developmental delay but a skill regression. This dynamic of learning to throw is common enough that it’s worth thinking about how coaches and players can address it.

Are there effective ways to coach yourself or another player through backhand lag? There’s no discussion I can find in the Ultimate coaching literature. Indeed, the Ultimate community rarely compares notes on common learning challenges like this, which affect new players of many ages.

Backhand lag is counter-intuitive. Aerodynamically, the forehand is the less stable throw.[1] So why does it take some novices longer to progress to competency with the backhand?

At first glance, four explanations seem plausible:

  • Biomechanics: the backhand is actually a more complex throw, even though it travels more stably
  • Attention: backhand lag is an effect of what players observe, not a real delay. We see improvement more clearly with a new throw
  • Developmental process: backhand lag is a real effect of where you put your effort. You work harder on an unfamiliar throw and so you make swifter progress
  • Practice and competition habits of beginning players foster backhand lag

The rich body of research on the neurophysiology of throw development can help us sort through these four possibilities. That literature clarifies the phenomenon of backhand lag and suggests some practical ways to address it.

Skill acquisition in throwing: biomechanics

To date, most of the research on throwing relates to overhand throw development in ball sports. But the basic principles apply to the classic sidearm throws of Ultimate.

All throwing involves a complex “kinetic chain”, a standard biomechanical concept that sports physiologists use. Force is gathered in one part of the body and transferred sequentially, with increasing momentum, to the object in play. To assemble that sequence and deliver force through each step in a controlled way is a physically and cognitively demanding task.

This description of an overhand baseball throw by the researcher Greg Downey captures just how complex and demanding that task can be:

An expert throw is a kinaesthetic cascade that begins with a windup in which the body, counter-intuitively, swivels in the opposite direction from the eventual throw, turns the shoulder on the throwing arm back, and lifts the opposite foot to pivot backwards. The throw progresses to a forward step on the contralateral foot while the arm actually cocks in the opposite direction. Finally, during the acceleration phase, the momentum generated successively by the step, rotation of the pelvis, rotation of the torso, twisting of the shoulder, elbow straightening and wrist extending, must be transferred between body parts, stabilized, and then, suddenly, once the ball is released, decelerated and dissipated in the follow-through.[2]

Using Downey’s language as a template, here’s my attempt at describing the kinetic chain of a backhand throw of a disc:

A backhand throw is a kinaesthetic cascade that begins with a windup in which the body, counter-intuitively, swivels in the opposite direction from the eventual throw. Facing away from the direction of throw, the body shifts weight to the pivot foot, turns back the pelvis, torso, and shoulder on the throwing side while the arm curves across the torso and the forearm cocks in the same direction. The throw progresses as the weight shifts to the dominant (throwing side) foot in a lateral step forward, while the elbow leads the arm forward, uncoiling. Finally, during the acceleration phase, the momentum generated successively by the step, rotation of the pelvis, rotation of the torso, twisting of the shoulder, elbow straightening and wrist extending, must be transferred between body parts, stabilized, and then, suddenly, once the disc is released, decelerated and dissipated in the follow-through.

And imitating Downey again, here’s the sequence of actions in a forehand throw of a disc:

A forehand throw is a kinaesthetic cascade that begins with a windup in which the body, counter-intuitively, swivels slightly in the opposite direction from the eventual throw. Facing in the direction of throw, the body shifts weight to the pivot foot, turns the pelvis and shoulder back on the throwing side while the forearm cocks back in the same direction. The throw progresses as the weight shifts to the dominant (throwing side) foot in a lateral step forward, while the elbow leads the arm forward. Finally, during the acceleration phase, the momentum generated successively by the step, rotation of the pelvis, rotation of the torso, twisting of the shoulder, elbow straightening and wrist extending, must be transferred between body parts, stabilized, and then, suddenly, once the disc is released, decelerated and dissipated in the follow-through.

All this unfolds at incredible speed. In a study by Sarah Ann Hummel, an experienced player completed the acceleration phase of a backhand throw in about a tenth of a second. Using a radar gun, Hummel clocked the release speed of her test subject at 22.4 m/sec. or about 50 m.p.h.[3]

Comparing these sequences, several differences are immediately apparent that help explain why beginning throwers might acquire a competent backhand more slowly than they do a competent forehand. First, a backhand engages more of the body in a potentially wider range of motion – particularly in the degree of rotation of the hip, torso and shoulder. There may be similar degrees of freedom in each throw; Hummel’s model of the backhand isolates six articulated segments from torso to hand alone (p. 60). In a forehand, however, the non-dominant side of the body (the pivot-foot side) is arguably less dynamic.

Second, note that in both throws the acceleration phase begins in the lower body and large muscles, delivering force through the torso to arm and wrist to progressively smaller muscles. With a forehand, the thrower begins and ends this sequence facing in the direction of throw. Yet a backhand adds an additional complexity: a thrower begins with her back to the direction of throw, looking over her shoulder.

With each movement, the more the range of motion, the more difficult it is to control so many degrees of freedom. A forehand stance more easily allows beginning players to isolate the large motor components of the throw (legs and torso) from the small motor components (shoulder and arm). They can shorten the kinetic chain if they need to, to control the transmission of momentum and the amount of force transferred from large to small muscles. This might make it easier for the brain to assemble parts of the sequence more quickly – and thus get better sooner at throwing a forehand.

Moreover, this research makes it clear that learning a new skill requires the reallocation of neural resources. It’s normal for these processes to advance unevenly. As Downey explains, kinesthetic studies by Mary Roberton and others have shown that throwing ability “advances unevenly in different parts of the body;” as a player’s brain assembles the different elements of a throw, “one part [can] grow more sophisticated while another part [lags] behind.”[4]

Developmental and social factors: forehand forces and glam throws

Practice and game dynamics may also contribute to backhand lag. Repetition has a significant affect on the body that adapts to practiced activities and on the nervous system as well. Yet, as Downey emphasizes, it requires sufficient “stress on the body or nervous system to change them and adapt them for expert throwing.”[5]

In youth Ultimate and in other beginning play situations, it’s common practice for opponents to force forehand; in anticipation of this, beginners tend to practice that defense against themselves more than they do a backhand force. This makes some tactical sense. But it means that beginning players are likely to have more high-pressure experiences of forehand throwing – precisely the kind of situation that stresses the nervous system to adapt.

Lastly, there’s a glam effect of the forehand for beginning players that should not be ignored. The ability to throw a clean forehand like a pro can gain a young player a lot of attention among non-Ultimate-playing peers. This is especially true for girls. Indeed learning a forehand is likely to be the only throwing experience they have in which they can acquire a skill as quickly as boys do. The adrenaline of impressing an audience may be just the sort of contextual stressor for brain development that fosters effective neural reallocation: wanting it more and getting positive reinforcement for doing it speeds anyone on the path to competence.


Counter-intuitively, the backhand may in fact be the more difficult throw for a beginner to advance with. Players and coaches can redress this by creating frequent neural and physical stressors for backhand throwing. Scrimmage with a backhand force. At every practice, get outside of your backhand comfort zone for distance, extension, and how hard you throw. As a simple strategy: count how many backhands players can complete in a minute; then add three to that number and have them compete to surpass that.

Just a little consistent pressure like this can get players over backhand lag more quickly.

Photo courtesy of Kevin Leclaire at Ultiphotos.

[1] Evan Winograd and Jack R. Engsberg, “Throwing Techniques for Ultimate Frisbee.” The Sport Journal Vol 15, 2012. United States Sports Academy. Web.

[2] Greg Downey, “Throwing Like a Girl(‘s Brain).” 2009. Neuroanthropology Blog.  Posted February 1, 2009. Web.

[3] Sarah A. Hummel, “Frisbee Flight Simulation and Throw Biomechanics.” Master’s thesis, 2003. University of California Davis, p. 60. Available as a pdf.

[4] Downey, 2009. See also Mary Ann Roberton and Lolas E. Halverson, Developing Children: Their Changing Movement. A Guide for Teachers. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1984, 24.

[5] Greg Downey, “Throwing Like a Brazilian: On Ineptness and a Skill-shaped Body.” In Anthropology of Sport and Human Movement. Robert Sands, ed. Lexington Books (Rowman & Littlefield), 2010, 297-326.

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About Katherine Rowe

Katherine Rowe teaches media history at Bryn Mawr College and coaches the Lower Merion, PA High School girls Ultimate team, the 2009 and 2010 state champions. She began her Ultimate career at Carleton College, in 1982, where she co-founded the first intercollegiate women's team. She played internationally with Smithereens (Boston) in the late 80s, capturing finalist titles at the World Games (1989) and at women's club nationals. She helped found BUDA and has played in PADA since moving to the Philly area more than a decade ago. She has a longstanding interest in fostering the growth of young athletes.

View all posts by Katherine Rowe →

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  • Paddy Ward

    This is great, see this every year when coaching new players and experienced it myself and always put it down to forcing forehand more of the time.

    Any ideas if this also affects other things like backhand/forehand in tennis? (admittedly there is no pressure to just hit one way but the mechanics are similar)

  • Bill Boyer

    Very well written. I fully agree with the backhand lag as you describe it and have noted a lot of teams (mostly at mid-league level) actually switching their forces to take advantage of this fact.

    I would like to submit a possibility for the perceived/real backhand regression. As players work on learning/refining their forehand throws, their backhand does indeed get neglected. When they then try to work on their backhand, they end up pushing beyond what they could previously throw (due to their success with the forehand), either in terms of distance/accuracy/angle/touch of throw or pivot distance, height of release, etc. It then appears that their backhand has actually regressed, but in reality, they are going beyond their original abilities, creating a perceived regression.

    It would be difficult to quantify this, without a fair amount of documentation, but it would be an interesting thing to investigate.

    Ps. A thought for future investigations: the impact of previous sport experience on the learning curve for the various throws. (Primarily throwing vs. racket sports, I would say.)

  • Colin

    Very cool. Nice article. Thanks for sharing your research links. As a long-time sufferer of forehand lag, I think sports background can have a lot to do with it as well, in both directions. Some sports translate well to backhands (golf, tennis backhand), others translate well to flicks (baseball, racquet sports). But the backhand lag phenomenon is interesting, and I enjoyed the article. Thank you!

  • Chris

    I think the primary reason is that because the mechanics are so much simpler, the forehand is the go to throw when people are throwing with friends/warming up. If I am lazily throwing with friends, I am throwing almost all flicks. Backhands require me to step out and exert myself that tiny bit more. I can remain nearly stationary and throw a flick. I would attribute it as much to laziness as anything.

  • Kathy

    @Bill and @ Colin — the impact of previous throwing experience would be super interesting. I’ve thought a little about this — here’s some nattering on what I’ve observed. Maybe you can confirm/contest/expand?

    I’ll start with small ball sports (baseball/softball). In the US, there’s a high incidence of previous training in these sports for boys who come to Ultimate — though the serious ballplayers will never come to Ultimate, because they have the same competition season. For girls, there’s a much lower incidence of ball sports background in my experience.

    When throwing the flick, players with prior ball-throwing experience have to learn a completely new kinetic chain. Though some ball-throwing dynamics translate well to the flick (eg., the overall principle of rotating the body to deliver momentum from large to small muscles and then to the object in play) others interfere.

    I’ve observed three common areas of confusion from ball sports:

    1) stepping with the off-side foot.

    2) stepping directly forward with the throw instead using the angled side-step that maximizes delivery of momentum to the disc. This is a subtle dynamic but an important one, because it’s counter-intuitive to players who’ve thrown a ball to find that the step forward that maximizes delivery of momentum from large muscles to small in ball throwing actually has the opposite effect in disc throwing.

    3) angle and rotation of the forearm. In an overhand ball throw, the forearm will be nearly perpendicular to the ground through the final motion and the wrist will rotate towards the receiver. This dynamic produces the common mis-throw (knifing to the ground) that we see with many beginning players. I find it helps to physically position the new player’s hand, wrist, and forearm with the inner wrist pointed to the sky, then flex the wrist from that position so the new thrower can get a sense of what that non-rotated flick feels like.

    Someone talk about tennis next? I find that tennis players have a couple of advantages in learning to throw a disc: smoothly connected kinetic chain for the backhand; stepping on the correct side of the body for Ultimate; a real understanding of how wrist position translates into a slice or curve for the trajectory of the disc.

    And for those of you teaching girls, volleyball and basketball are especially interesting. Like softball, those sports teach players to be comfortable catching over their heads – which is not otherwise something girls get a lot of experience with in the US. Best of all for high school coaches, volleyball is a fall sport and basketball is a winter sport. That’s where we should be recruiting our girl players.

    • Colin

      I think the baseball/softball players do well with generating power, being used to the shoulder/elbow/wrist generating power for the flick, In terms of actually throwing well (vs. just hard), quite a few players have mentioned the different wrist action. Ofthe throwers I’ve encountered who absolutely struggle to learn a short-mid-range flick, baseball players have also been a majority, often mentioning the wrist-action difference. But many of them can hurl a hammer without much trouble.

      In some ways, I think the power is harder to teach for someone who doesn’t have experience throwing SOMETHING fast. Softball, too. There’s a big difference in power between a competitive ball player and someone playing catch in the park, and I think the power difference shows in forehands.

      Tennis backhand is very similar, directly. I’ve heard an open-stance forehand is also similar, though that wasn’t my style (and didn’t translate). A golf swing also has some similarities (though reverse), in terms of getting shoulder rotation and hip involvement, and keeping upright behind the throw.

      Interesting mentioning the complexity of the backhand versus the isolation of the forehand. I also try isolating on the backhand for teaching purposes. Getting comfortable with the elbow/wrist action is a good first step. The pivot and wind-up are often complications for new throwers, and make it more difficult to keep things in alignment.

      Most of my experience is with college players, where there are some fairly high-level players from other sports who still aren’t good enough for college play at a D-I level.

  • Bill Boyer

    One of the big things I’ve noticed with the cross over from small ball sports is the early development of the hammer, as opposed to the flick. The kinetic chain is almost identical to an overhand baseball throw, so the learning curve is MUCH shorter. The biggest difference (at least for me) is that the first step isn’t the lifting of the opposite foot, but is a step backwards with the driving foot. (In my case, being right handed, I step back with my right foot to avoid a travel.) From there, the motion is pretty much identical to a baseball throw. A lot of the high school kids (and adults, for that matter) that I’ve coached have found this motion much more intuitive.

    Two big challenges come from this. As you noted in #1, the new throwers still want to step with the wrong foot (hence the stepping back I mentioned above). Also, they tend to generate a lot of the spin with their arm motion as opposed to the wrist. When translating this to their flick, they end up with a hard flick (to generate spin), which they have trouble slowing down but maintaing high spin.

    For #2, I usually try to exaggerate stepping more to the side (when coaching throwers), to differentiate it from a ball throw. I think this serves to confuse the muscles, keeping them from following the set patterns of an overhand throw.

    For the flick, I’ve noticed the same as you pointed out in #3 Kathy and I usually approach it the same way, but I get people to concentrate on keeping their palm facing up as opposed to the wrist, as I think a lot of ball players want to have the palm behind their throw (if that makes sense).

    Another aspect of baseball as it relates to ultimate is the swing of the bat. I bat left, but throw right, so the backhand is actually a natural motion for me. A lot of others struggle, because they’re trying to reverse the motion from what is natural for them.

    As far as racket sports go, tennis is a good background for the full body mechanics, but badminton would appear to be a better primer for the wrist motion involved.

  • Fantusta

    I’ve never put much thought into the sports the players I coach come from, though it’s something I thought a lot about as a player with my teammates. Definitely a failing of mine; especially because one of my favorite things is working with throws one-on-one.

    Also, I think one of the things I’ve always tried to do to avoid backhand lag as described here is to continue harping on the little things in the motion; making sure the step is across the body, making sure we keep the disc straight and flat, etc. Too often coaches teach the specifics of the flick but trust their players to just “know” the backhand.

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