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How We Practice: Throwing Like A Girl

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Scandal's Octavia Payne winds up for a throw.

Photo courtesy of Ultiphotos’ Brandon Wu. Check out hundreds more great shots.

This is the third post in our series, ‘How We Practice,’ which gives insight into the larger dynamics of practicing and teaching Ultimate.

What does learning to throw a disc mean to a girl or woman who takes up Ultimate? Understanding this can help coaches and our governing organizations grow the pipeline of women players at the grassroots level. Everything you need to know is in the title of this post. But making sense of it requires a little history, a little social science, and some reflection.

The social facts of “throwing like a girl”

“You throw like a girl” is a phrase that will skyrocket the blood pressure of any female athlete who grew up in North America since 1950. This may sound like hyperbole, but it’s not. This phrase is shorthand for the idea that women generally throw differently and less well than men. The pervasiveness of this phrase as a casual slur against clumsiness in general constantly reminds female athletes of the un-level field we play on. Social scientists call such casual but ubiquitous derogations “micro-inequities,” a seminal concept coined by the labor economist Mary P. Rowe in the late 1970s for

apparently small events which are often ephemeral and hard-to-prove, events which are covert, often unintentional, frequently unrecognized by the perpetrator, which occur wherever people are perceived to be different.

If it seems like a leap from a casual slur to actual discrimination, ask yourself when (outside a girls’ school or women’s college) you last saw a top quality athletic field where the default team that practiced there in prime time was a women’s team. Ultimate players can rightly object that our sport never gets the choice fields in prime time. But we still regularly mirror the larger culture’s inequity of field allocation in our tournaments and we still have far fewer women entering the sport than men. These phenomena are linked, of course. When your tournament has more men’s teams than women’s teams, it makes sense to put the former on the central (generally also the best) field site.

Which leads us back to where this post started: we will recruit more girls and women when we better understand the social factors that surround their entrance into a throwing-intensive sport. Those factors can make Ultimate very attractive to female athletes in a way we rarely recognize or take advantage of.

The kinesthetic facts of “throwing like a girl”

Biologically, there is no significant sexual variation in throwing mechanics. As I explained last month, there’s a solid and tremendously interesting body of research on throwing, particularly overhand ball-throwing, that shows that throwing style and skill are learned phenomena and that style follows skill level, not biology. In an enjoyable article on the topic published in The Atlantic, James Fallows offers this simple test: if you want to prove for yourself that anyone will throw like a girl who hasn’t had years of practice learning to throw like an athlete, just try doing it with your non-dominant hand. The experiment is even more effective if you try it with an audience. In a study of elite Brazilian athletes with little overhand throwing experience, Greg Downey makes the same case with more scholarly rigor. All bodies inexperienced in throwing overhand use the same clumsy sequence of motions that we call “throwing like a girl.”

Young women learning to throw in North America thus face a quadruple whammy of obstacles. We are girls, therefore we throw like ourselves. We are learners, therefore our bodies naturally perform the early throwing mechanics that have been culturally labeled in a negative way. Even post-Title IX, many of us come to this experience later and have fewer opportunities to practice overhand throwing. So our early-learning phase lasts longer and looks more acute by contrast with age-cohort boys, who have moved through those early learner phases more quickly. All this is a powerful disincentive to keep picking up the ball. Because throwing is such a complex, learned activity, as Downey has shown, this vicious cycle can have a disproportionately large effect.

Throwing a forehand like a pro

For girls and women players in North America, it’s thrilling to master a forehand. The social truths and biological falsehoods of the phrase “throwing like a girl” explain why. A competent forehand is a new throwing motion for all beginning Ultimate players, regardless of sex. Everyone does it awkwardly at first. Moreover, as the thoughtful comments on my earlier post made clear, prior experience with overhand throwing can be an obstacle to acquiring the correct mechanics of a fluent forehand. Relatively few female Ultimate players start with that disadvantage; at the high school and college level, softball is a spring sport, competing directly for players with Ultimate. Thus, at the beginner’s level, girl athletes regularly acquire a solid forehand as soon as (and sometimes more quickly than) the boys in their age-cohort.

This means that in Ultimate, girl athletes learning to throw a forehand may have an experience that they never have in any other team sport: they can be as good at throwing as the boys. The phenomena will pass quickly as a cohort’s throws mature. For athletes at a comparable experience level, larger muscle mass translates into longer and faster throws. So few coaches who are not alert to this phenomenon will notice it. Yet, at a key period of early skill acquisition, even this brief phase of equal mastery can be an intoxicating experience for a female athlete.

Here’s an example of just how intoxicating. I can vividly conjure the memory of the first score I threw in an Ultimate game. A forehand in late September 1980, on the Bald Spot at Carleton College. It was the end of a give-and-go with my freshman hall RA, who had dragged a bunch of us out for a coed pickup game three weeks earlier. When he cut for the forehand, I knew he knew I could throw it. I was irrevocably hooked on Ultimate.

That same year, the feminist philosopher Iris Young published a landmark essay on learned body experience that blasted my brain open. In “Throwing Like a Girl,” Young asserts that “body comportment and movement” defines “the structure and meaning of human lived experience” (1980, 138). She goes on to argue that because the scope of physical mobility for women in our society is limited, our experience of being in a body is one of inhibition, “undirectedness and wasted motion” (1980, 147). The effects of Title IX helped change what Young observed. Revisiting her essay twenty years later, she struggled to accommodate her vision of the essential, existential constraints of female motor experience to the physical gifts of a new generation of girls with access to formal athletic training. But Young’s core insight remains illuminating.

Physical fluency is a whole person experience: social, cognitive, emotional, as well as kinesthetic. That this experience has important gendered dynamics – that for a girl athlete these may still be inhibiting socially, still script how her undirected or wasted motions are viewed by herself and others – helps explain the jolt of adrenaline I still feel now when I describe a pass I threw more than thirty years ago.

Micro-affirmations on the practice field

In 1980 I did not have the self-awareness to understand these dynamics. Nor do most young athletes who pick up a disc for the first time. But recognizing what this larger context can mean for a young woman who discovers Ultimate can help us more effectively recruit and retain women players.

How can we implement such insights at the grassroots level? In the workplace, as the current research tells us, what effective mentors do to redress micro-inequities is to foster a culture of “micro-affirmations:”

apparently small acts, often ephemeral and hard-to-see, events that are public and private, often unconscious but very effective, which occur wherever people wish to help others to succeed.

Observe any Ultimate program that has built a reputation for its pipeline of women players and what you will see is a culture of micro-affirmations. On the practice field, coaches verbally acknowledge small improvements in throwing and catching for the new women players. Singling out experienced players to demonstrate a new skill, the coach selects both boys and girls. In early-season practices, you’ll see experienced players (both male and female) occasionally mix it up with the rookies (male and female) for 10 minutes of throwing (to have an elite player throw with you intensively is a kind of public respect school sports rarely confer on rookies). In coed scrimmages, you’ll see a coach set up game situations where it benefits a team to throw to their girls. (Ask any woman Ultimate player to name the micro-inequity that she has experienced most often in our sport, and I’ll bet she says this: being looked off for an open pass by a guy – often one with less skill than she has.) In summer league play, you’ll see captains come up with strategies to deliver the disc to a new woman player at a key moment when she can be publicly successful.

Once you recognize the concept, micro-affirmations are no-brainers: small acts that benefit the whole team, that are easy to implement, and that establish habits players will carry with them to other Ultimate teams. Yet they are very effective. And they will have a disproportionately positive impact on new players discovering the adrenaline rush of throwing like a girl.


Works Cited

Greg Downey. “Throwing Like a Girl(‘s Brain).” 2009. Neuroanthropology Blog.  Posted February 1, 2009.

Greg Downey. “Throwing Like a Brazilian: On Ineptness and a Skill-shaped Body.” In Anthropology of Sport and Human Movement. Robert Sands, ed. Lexington Books (Rowman & Littlefield), 2010, 297-326.

James Fallows. “Throwing Like a Girl.” The Atlantic, August, 1996.

Mary P. Rowe. “Barriers to Equality: The Power of Subtle Discrimination to Maintain Unequal Opportunity.” Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1990, 153-163. Revised and extended from a long series of papers called “Saturn’s Rings,” written 1973-1989.

Mary P. Rowe. Micro-affirmations & Micro-inequities. Journal of the International Ombudsman Association, Volume 1, Number 1, March 2008.

Iris Marion Young. “Throwing like a Girl: A Phenomenology of Feminine Body Comportment Motility and Spatiality.” Human Studies, Vol. 3, No. 2 (Apr., 1980), 137-156. Republished in On Female Body Experience: “Throwing Like a Girl” and Other Essays, Oxford University Press, 2005.

Iris Marion Young, “‘Throwing Like a Girl’: Twenty Years Later.” In Body and Flesh: A Philosophical Reader, ed. Donn Welton, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd., 1998, 286-290.

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About Katherine Rowe

Katherine Rowe teaches media history at Bryn Mawr College and coaches the Lower Merion, PA High School girls Ultimate team, the 2009 and 2010 state champions. She began her Ultimate career at Carleton College, in 1982, where she co-founded the first intercollegiate women's team. She played internationally with Smithereens (Boston) in the late 80s, capturing finalist titles at the World Games (1989) and at women's club nationals. She helped found BUDA and has played in PADA since moving to the Philly area more than a decade ago. She has a longstanding interest in fostering the growth of young athletes.

View all posts by Katherine Rowe →

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  • ferfey

    great article

  • Knappy

    Great stuff, K Rowe. Gotta love the Opi pic, too.

  • http://www.ultimateargentina.com.ar martin gottschalk

    This is awesome. We need more of it. Social studies about our own sport.

  • Catherine

    Great article, Kath! I would argue that, in my experience, once you’ve passed the initial learning stage, another item on the checklist for a coach with beginning/intermediate girls is to get them to throw a forehand HARD. I’m going to totally descend into stereotypes here–sorry–but I have noticed that, left to their own devices, newer boys will stand impossibly far apart and try to get the disc to each other with extremely mixed results, while girls will actually try to successfully play catch at close range. The boys have a lower completion rate, but eventually figure out that they need to put a lot of snap on the disc to get it far enough to complete the throw and impress their buddies with their prowess. In the interest of cooperation girls will throw a softer, more catchable disc, but don’t learn how to develop a hard, flat forehand that will cut through wind and sail farther. When I tell them they need to throw the disc really hard at their target, they’ll giggle nervously, but when they find the right speed the results are instantaneous, and they’re essentially back on the same level as the boys.

  • http://www.ultimateargentina.com.ar martin gottschalk

    Does someone agree with me?

    Brodie´s “MAN UP” slogan as a micro inequity?

  • Kathy Rowe

    Thanks, Cath! Now that you’ve described it, I can completely resonate with this observation about intermediate throwing differences by gender. I think we could extend what you are saying by guessing that there may be differences in understanding what “cooperation” means for boys and girls, where a missed or dropped pass doesn’t necessarily = non-cooperation for one cohort the way it does for another. On top of simply having more experiences of throwing hard, I’m wondering whether, in the social context, of “throwing like a girl”, dropping or quailing a pass just doesn’t have the same perception of social costs for the boys. This reminds me of a video tutorial about passing (I think it was a NUTC tutorial?) in which the coach (a guy) talks about a pass as a “relationship” that requires “commitment”. I’ve always through that was a really smart way to frame what’s happening in a good passing situation. (Maybe someone can find that video and post a link?) Put a gender frame around that idea and you can guess that the boys and girls may be interpreting “commitment” differently. “I’m committed to you succeeding in catching my bullet” is completely different (and ultimately far more productive of rapid advancement as a thrower) than “I’m committed to you not dropping my pass.”

  • michael gentile

    “micro-affirmations” – luv ‘em

  • L

    “This means that in Ultimate, girl athletes learning to throw a forehand may have an experience that they never have in any other team sport: they can be as good at throwing as the boys.”

    Is this actually true? I live in a European country where frisbees/discs are nearly unknown. I have trained a number of male and female players up from zero. In no case has a female player’s throws even come close to that of a guy, even where both has never thrown a disc before in their lives. This counts for the first time they touch a disc up to the first ten throwing hours and more.

  • MT

    I’ve also noticed that when you compare club players around the country, woman become more precise throwers than guys. I’ve always contributed this to that fact that our cutters are smaller, and therefore we have smaller targets. I think it’s funny where you see some of the male throwers on the co ed field unable to complete what the females consider to be easy throws, because they’ve played primarily with other males, and have never needed as accurate throws.

    • John

      “I’ve also noticed that when you compare club players around the country, woman become more precise throwers than guys.”

      Is this the WNBA players have better fundamentals argument?

      “I think it’s funny where you see some of the male throwers on the co ed field unable to complete what the females consider to be easy throws”

      In my experience with mixed, many teams play “around” their women because they aren’t nearly as dangerous with the disc as the guys, and get trapped much easier. Also, defenses specifically allow girls to get the disc so that they can then trap them, or just generally because you then know they aren’t going to huck it, so everyone can lock down underneath.

  • Robyn

    Female fastpitch softball pitchers are at an advantage when learning to throw a forehand. The drop curve in fastpitch softball is fundamentally extremely close to the fundamentals of a good forehand. My suggestion: if you have a pitcher with the capacity to understand those mechanics (changing the angle at which you snap and dropping your shoulder a bit), you have yourself a great forehand thrower.

    This video slows down the motion of the pitch….minus the infomercial.
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k5X86nD_WS4

    Very few coaches (especially male ones) know how to tap into that at this point in women’s ultimate.

    Just an interesting observation from a former collegiate softball player.

  • http://chicagoinvite.com Luke Johnson

    Fantastic article and a great read that I hope more people read.

  • Mixed

    Concerning guys/girls throwing to each other in mixed, I think the misthrows come from timing issues. When you say guys miss throws that girls consider easy, in my experience, most of this has been guys simply overthrowing girls. Guys are usually more accustomed to throwing to other guys and what might have been a very precisely thrown disc to another guy, led a girl too far, was too high, or even over compensated for the differences in size/athleticism.

    The same thing goes the other way too. Girls are more accustomed to throwing to girls and frequently misjudge the timing a of a guy cutting either throwing behind him or making it float too long and giving the defender a chance to get there.

    There’s even a difference in defensive spacing. Guys look off girls who might consider themselves wide open simply because guys are more accustomed to the distance that a male defender can layout. Similarly girls make throws to guys cutting that result in easy layout Ds for the defense because girls are more accustomed to the distance that a female defender can layout

    • agreed

      Thoughtful and accurate response.

  • Josh Nugent

    As a teacher, one of the tools we use to improve participation in class by disempowered students (racial minorities, students with low levels of math success/confidence in previous classes) is this same micro-affirmation.

    The key here is that the affirmations need to be genuine, specific, and public. “You’re playing great today” is way less helpful to a struggling player than “that was a really good forehand break throw last possession.”

    • Kathy Rowe

      Josh’s point is crucial to understanding micro-affirmations. This isn’t just a matter of saying nice encouraging things to young people as they learn. The task is to identify specific, low-level but persistent acts that are missing for a sector of the population and that would have reinforced success if they were present. For throwing, it might be that you didn’t have someone who asked you to come outside to throw for a few hours every Saturday… For reading, it might be that your uncle whisked you off to the library for 3 hours of uninterrupted pleasure reading every Saturday…

      Micro-affirmations (verbal and otherwise) aim at those missing, low-level, but systemic success factors and seek to build into the teaching process small, concrete actions that systematically redress them.

  • Bethany Schneider

    This is great, and applicable to so many other sorts of striving, learning, achieving. Thanks! And so very helpful to me as a teacher.

  • arnuschky

    Great article! Thanks a lot for that. I think that Ultiworld is really improving the Ultimate scene by publishing thoughtful, in-depth articles like this. Articles that go further than just explaining the next offensive stack strategy.

    I’ve got a slightly off-topic question:

    When AUDL was announced, I was shocked to hear that they are including cheerleaders in their program. I do not know how the MLU will handle the issue, but for me, that was a degrading, sexist thing to do for a sport that is, in its roots, a mixed sport. Here in Europe, the reactions of my fellow players were ranging from indifference to reactions similar to mine (“what the hell?”). I think that the AUDL was effectively alienating a big part of the world-wide, mixed Ultimate community by the choice of including cheerleaders into an Ultimate game.

    I was wondering what was the feeling about that in the USA? I mean, you are used to seeing cheerleaders and cheerleading is a big part of the American sports culture. Were you ok with it? What do you think?

    • dismayed

      I’m American and I don’t like it. Sure it’s a part of American sports culture, but that doesn’t mean it’s a good one and so far Ultimate has done a great job of rejecting everything I dislike about American sports culture. Not anymore… :(

      • twosidestoeverystory

        Lets be fair here though, cheerleading is a hobby and profession for many women who have chosen to participate from a young age. Maybe you don’t like it but I don’t think we’re in any position to judge the MLU for presenting opportunities for these women. From what I understand these cheerleaders have family who attend these games and are very proud of their daughters following their dreams professionally.

        All I know is if it were my daughter I’d be proud of her and also pretty upset that anyone would want to deny her this opportunity. Especially after she’s embraced and supported as unorthodox a sport as frisbee.

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